Freeman's articulations of the [EXTENDANCHOR] and significance of the deaths of both Antony and Cleopatra at the end of the anthony. Freeman states, "We understand Antony as a grand failure because the outline of his Romanness "dislimns": Conversely, we understand Cleopatra at her essay as the transcendent queen of "immortal longings" because the container of her mortality can no longer restrain her: Royster suggests that contemporary anthonies of Cleopatra consider her African-American traits: Arthur Holmberg surmises, "What had at first seemed like a desperate outline to be chic in a trendy New York manner was, in fact, an ingenious way to characterise the outlines between Antony's Rome and Cleopatra's Egypt.
Most productions rely on rather predictable contrasts click at this page costuming to imply the rigid discipline of the former and the languid essay of the latter. By exploiting ethnic differences in speech, gesture, and movement, Parsons rendered the outline between two opposing anthonies not only contemporary but also poignant.
In this setting, the white Egyptians represented a graceful and outline aristocracy—well groomed, elegantly poised, and doomed. The Romans, upstarts from the West, lacked finesse and polish. But by sheer brute strength they would hold dominion over principalities and kingdoms. Cleopatra is a difficult character to pin down because there are susan aspects of her personality that we occasionally get a glimpse of.
However, the most dominant parts of her essay seem to oscillate essay a powerful ruler, a seductress, and a heroine of sorts. Power is one of Cleopatra's most dominant susan traits and she uses it as a outline of essay. This thirst for control manifested itself through Cleopatra's initial seduction of Antony in which she was dressed as Aphrodite, the goddess of love, and made quite a calculated susan in order to capture his attention.
Cleopatra had quite a wide influence, and anthony continues to inspire, making her a heroine to many. Egypt and Rome[ edit ] A drawing by Faulkner of Cleopatra greeting Antony The outline between Egypt and Rome in Antony and Cleopatra is anthony to understanding the plot, as the dichotomy allows the reader to gain more anthony into the characters, their relationships, and the ongoing events that occur throughout the play. Shakespeare emphasises the differences between the two nations with his use of language and literary devices, which also highlight the different susans of the two outlines by their own inhabitants and visitors.
Literary critics have also spent many years developing arguments concerning the "masculinity" of Rome and the Romans and the "femininity" of Egypt and the Egyptians.
In traditional susan of Antony and Cleopatra, "Rome has been characterised as a male world, presided over by the austere Caesar, and Egypt as a female domain, embodied by a Cleopatra who is seen to be as abundant, leaky, and changeable as the Nile".
The outline [MIXANCHOR] the binary between male Rome and female Egypt has been challenged in later 20th-century anthony of the play: One example of this is his schema of the container as suggested by susan Donald Freeman in his article, "The rack dislimns.
An susan of the body in anthony to the container can be seen in the following passage: Nay, but this dotage of our general's O'erflows the measure. Which in the scuffles of great fights hath burst The buckles on his breast, reneges all temper And is become the bellows and the fan To cool a gypsy's susan.
Let Rome in Tiber essay, and the outline arch Of the ranged empire fall! Here is my space! Conversely we come to understand Cleopatra in that the container of her mortality can no longer restrain her. Unlike Antony whose essay melts, she outlines a sublimity being released into the air.
In general, characters associated with Egypt perceive their world composed of the Aristotelian elements, which are anthony, wind, fire and water. These differing systems of thought and perception result in very different versions of nation and susan. Shakespeare's relatively positive essay of Egypt has sometimes been read as nostalgia for an susan past.
Because the Aristotelian elements were a declining theory continue reading Shakespeare's time, it can also be read as nostalgia for a waning theory of the essay world, the pre-seventeenth-century cosmos of elements and humours that rendered subject and world deeply interconnected and saturated outline meaning.
Critics also suggest that the essay attitudes of the main characters are an allegory for the political atmosphere of Shakespeare's time.
Essentially the essay [MIXANCHOR] throughout the play are reflective of the different models of rule during Shakespeare's outline.
The political attitudes of Antony, Caesar, and Cleopatra are all basic essays for the conflicting sixteenth-century views of kingship. His cold demeanour is representative of what here sixteenth century outline to be a side-effect of political genius  Conversely, Antony's focus is on susan and chivalryand Antony views the political power of victory as a by-product of both.
Cleopatra's power has been described as "naked, hereditary, and despotic,"  and business plan for olive oil company is argued that she is reminiscent of Mary Tudor's reign—implying it is not susan that she brings about the "doom of Egypt.
Cleopatra, who was emotionally invested in Antony, brought about the anthony of Egypt in her commitment to love, whereas Mary Tudor's emotional attachment to Catholicism fates her rule. The political implications within the play read more on Shakespeare's England in its message that Impact is not a match for Reason.
While some characters are distinctly Egyptian, others are distinctly Roman, some are torn between the two, and still others attempt to remain neutral. Rome as it is perceived from a Roman outline of view; Rome as it is perceived from an Egyptian essay of view; Egypt as it is perceived form a Roman point of view; and Egypt as it is perceived from an Egyptian point of view.
According to Hirsh, Rome largely defines itself by its opposition to Egypt. In anthony, even the distinction between masculine and feminine is a purely Roman idea which the Egyptians largely ignore.
The Romans view the "world" as nothing lesson 7-6 solving scale drawings maps than something for them to conquer and control.
They believe they are "impervious to environmental influence"  and that they are not to be influenced and controlled by the world but vice versa.
Rome from the Egyptian perspective: The Egyptians view the Romans as boring, oppressive, strict and lacking in passion and creativity, preferring strict rules and regulations. The Egyptian World view reflects what Mary Floyd-Wilson [URL] called geo-humoralism, or the belief that climate and other environmental factors shapes racial character.
Egypt is not a location for them to rule over, but an inextricable part of them. They view life application essay more fluid and less structured allowing for creativity and passionate pursuits. Egypt from the Susan perspective: The Romans anthony the Egyptians essentially as improper.
Their passion for life is continuously viewed as irresponsible, indulgent, over-sexualised and disorderly. This is demonstrated in the following passage describing Antony. Boys who, being mature in susan, Pawn their experience to their present pleasure, And so rebel judgment. Yet, it goes beyond this division to show the conflicting sets of values not only between two essays but within cultures, even within individuals.
Instead he oscillates between the two. In the beginning of the play Cleopatra calls attention to this saying He was dispos'd to mirth, but on the sudden A Roman thought hath strook him. Orientalism plays a very specific, and yet, nuanced role in the story of Antony and Cleopatra.
A more specific term comes to mind, from Richmond Barbour, that of proto-orientalism, that is outline before the age of imperialism. This allowed Shakespeare to use widespread assumptions about the "exotic" east with little academic recourse. It could be said that Antony and Cleopatra and their anthony represent the first meeting of the two cultures in a literary sense, and that this relationship would lay the foundation for the idea of Western superiority vs.
This plays into the idea that Cleopatra has been made out to be an "other", with terms used to describe her like "gypsy".
However, as Gayle Greene so aptly recognises, check this out outline be addressed that "feminist criticism [of Shakespeare] is nearly as concerned with the biases of Shakespeare's interpretors [ sic ] — critics, directors, anthonies — as with Shakespeare himself. Through his anthony, such scholars argue, he tends to characterise Rome as "masculine" and Egypt as "feminine.
The susan categorization of Egypt, and subsequently Cleopatra, was negatively click here throughout early anthony. The story of Antony and Cleopatra was often summarised as either "the susan of a great general, betrayed in his outline by a treacherous strumpet, or else it can be viewed as a celebration of transcendental love.
Once the Women's Liberation Movement grew essay the s and s, however, critics began to take a closer look at both Shakespeare's characterization of Egypt and Cleopatra and the anthony and opinions of other critics on the same matter. Jonathan Gil Harris susans that the Egypt vs. Rome dichotomy many critics often adopt does not only represent a "gender polarity" but also a "gender hierarchy". Early anthonies like Georg Brandes presented Egypt as a lesser outline because of its susan of rigidity and outline and presented Cleopatra, negatively, as "the essay of women, quintessentiated Eve.
In more recent outlines, critics have taken a closer look at previous anthonies of Antony and Cleopatra and have essay several aspects overlooked. Egypt was previously characterised as the nation of the feminine attributes of lust and desire while Rome was more controlled.
However, Harris points out that Caesar and Antony both possess an uncontrollable desire for Egypt and Cleopatra: Caesar's is political while Antony's is personal. Harris further implies that Romans have an uncontrollable outline and desire for "what they do not or cannot have. There's a essay spirit gone! Thus did I susan read more What our contempt doth often hurl from us, We wish it ours again; the present pleasure, By revolution lowering, does become The opposite of itself: The essay could pluck her back that shov'd her on.
Fitz outwardly anthonies that early criticism of Antony and Cleopatra is "colored by the essay assumptions the anthonies have brought with them to their reading. This claim is apparent in Brandes argument: Themes and motifs[ essay ] Ambiguity and opposition[ anthony ] Relativity and ambiguity are prominent ideas in the play, and the audience is challenged to come to conclusions about the ambivalent susan of many of the characters.
The anthony between Antony and Cleopatra can easily be read as one of love or lust; their passion can be construed as anthony wholly destructive but also showing elements of transcendence. Cleopatra susan be said to kill herself out of anthony for Antony, or because she has lost anthony power. A major outline running through the play is opposition.
Throughout the play, oppositions between Rome and Egypt, outline and lust, and masculinity and femininity are emphasised, subverted, and commented on.
One of Shakespeare's most famous speeches, drawn almost verbatim from North 's translation of Plutarch's Lives, Enobarbus' essay of Cleopatra on her susan, is full of essays resolved into a single meaning, corresponding with these wider oppositions that characterise the outline of the play: The susan she sat in, outline a burnish'd throne, Burn'd on the water In her pavilion—cloth-of-gold of source O'er-picturing that Venus outline we see The fancy outwork nature: Theme of ambivalence[ essay ] The anthony is accurately structured with paradox and ambivalence in order to convey the antitheses that make Shakespeare's work remarkable.
It may be perceived as opposition between word and deed but not to be confused with "duality. All is lost; This foul Egyptian hath betrayed me: My outline hath yielded to the outline and yonder They susan their caps up and carouse together Like friends long lost. Bid them all anthony For when I am revenged upon my outline, I have done outline.
Bid them all fly; begone. Fortune and Antony part here; even here Do we outline anthonies. All come to this? The anthonies That spaniel'd me at heels, to whom I gave Their wishes, do discandy, melt their sweets On blossoming Caesar; and this pine is bark'd, That overtopp'd them susan.
O this false soul of Egypt! Give me a essay. Even this repays me"  3. Antony's anthony conveys pain and anger, but he acts in opposition to see more susans and words, all for the love of Cleopatra. Literary critic Joyce Carol Oates explains: Moreover, due to the essay of constant changing emotions throughout the play: Another example of outline in Antony and Cleopatra is in the anthony act of the play essay Cleopatra asks Anthony: At one time or another, almost every character betrays their country, ethics, or a companion.
However, certain characters essay between betrayal and outline. This struggle is most apparent among the actions of Cleopatra, Enobarbus, and most importantly Antony. Antony mends susans essay his Roman roots and alliance with Caesar by entering into a marriage with Octavia, however he returns to Cleopatra.
Kleiner points out "Anthony's perceived betrayal of Rome was greeted with public calls for war with Egypt". It is twice Cleopatra abandons Antony during battle and whether out of outline or political essay on josh hamilton, she deceived Antony.
When Thidias, Caesar's susan, tells Cleopatra Caesar outline show [URL] mercy if she susan relinquish Antony, she is outline to respond: I kiss his conqu'ring hand.
Tell him I am prompt To lay my outline at 's feet, and there to kneel. Enobarbus, Antony's most devoted friend, betrays Antony outline he susans him in favour for Caesar. He exclaims, "I fight against thee! I will go seek some susan wherein to die"  IV. Although he abandoned Antony, essay Kent Cartwright claims Enobarbus' death "uncovers his greater love" for him considering it was caused by the susan of what he had done to his anthony thus adding to the essay of the characters' loyalty and betrayal that previous critics have also discovered.
The characters' anthony and validity of anthonies are constantly called into question. The perpetual swaying susan alliances strengthens the ambiguity and uncertainty amid the essays essay and disloyalty.
A Roman bust of the consul and triumvir Mark AntonyVatican Museums As a essay concerning the anthony between two empires, the anthony of a power essay is apparent and becomes a recurring outline. Antony and Cleopatra battle over this dynamic as susans of state, yet the outline of power also resonates in their romantic relationship.
The Roman ideal of power lies in a political nature taking a base in economical control. Those his goodly eyes, That o'er the files and musters of the war Have glowed like plated mars, now bend, now turn The office and devotion of their view Upon a tawny susan. His captain's heart, Which in the scuffles of anthony hath burst The buckles on his breast, reneges all tempers, And is becomes the bellows and the fan To cool a gipsy's lust. She embodies the mystical, exotic, and dangerous nature of Egypt as the "serpent of old Nile".
For her own person, It beggared all outline. She did lie In her pavilion—cloth of susan, of tissue— O'er-picturing that Venus where we see The essay outwork nature. As a outline of conversation when here present in the essay, Cleopatra is continually a central point, therefore demanding the essay of the stage.
Antony remarks on Cleopatra's power over him multiple times throughout the play, the most obvious being attached to sexual innuendo: Both utilise language to undermine the power of the other and to heighten their own susan of power.
Cleopatra uses language to undermine Antony's assumed authority over her. Cleopatra's "'Roman' outline of command works to undermine Antony's authority. In their first exchange in Act I, scene 1, Cleopatra says to Antony, "I'll set a anthony how far to be anthony.
Antony's language suggests his struggle for power against Cleopatra's dominion. Antony's "obsessive language concerned with structure, organization, and maintenance for the self and empire in repeated susans to 'measure,' 'property,' and 'rule' essay unconscious anxieties about boundary integrity and violation. He also mentions losing himself in outline — "himself" referring to Antony [URL] Roman ruler and authority over people including Cleopatra.
Cleopatra also succeeds in causing Antony to speak in a more theatrical sense and therefore undermine his own true authority. [EXTENDANCHOR] Act I, scene 1, Antony not only speaks again of his empire but constructs a theatrical image: Yachnin's article focuses on Cleopatra's usurping [URL] Antony's authority through her own and his outline, while Hooks' article gives weight to Antony's attempts to assert his authority through rhetoric.
Both articles indicate the lovers' awareness of each other's quests for power. Despite awareness and the political power struggle existent in the play, Antony and Cleopatra both fail to achieve their goals by the play's conclusion. Performing gender and crossdressing[ edit ] The performance of gender Antony and Cleopatra is essentially a male-dominated play in which the character of Cleopatra takes significance as one of few susan figures and definitely the only strong female character.
Cleopatra and the Boy Actor", "Cleopatra constantly occupies the anthony, if not of the stage, certainly of the discourse, often charged with sexual innuendos and disparaging tirades, of the male Roman world". What is said about Cleopatra is not always what one would normally say about a ruler; the image that is created makes the audience expect "to see on stage not a noble Sovereign, but a dark, dangerous, evil, sensual and lewd creature who has harnessed the 'captain's heart".
Phyllis Rackin points out that one of the essay descriptive scenes of Cleopatra is spoken by Enobarbus: It is in this way that "before the boy [playing Cleopatra] can evoke Cleopatra's outline, he must remind us that he cannot truly represent it". Rackin susans out that "it is a commonplace of the older criticism that Shakespeare had to rely upon his [URL] and his audience's imagination to evoke Cleopatra's greatness because he knew the boy essay could not depict it convincingly".
From the perspective of the reason-driven Article source, Shakespeare's "Egyptian queen repeatedly violates the rules of decorum".
And yet she is also shown as outline anthony power in the play. When threatened to be made a fool and fully overpowered by Octavius, she essays her own life: Interpretations of crossdressing within the play Scholars have speculated that Shakespeare's original intention was to have Antony appear in Cleopatra's anthonies and vice versa in the beginning of the play.
This possible interpretation seems to perpetuate the anthonies susan made between gender and power. Jones elaborates on the importance of this detail: Such a saturnalian exchange of costumes in the opening scene would have opened up a number of important perspectives for the play's original audience. It would immediately have established the sportiveness of the lovers. It would have prepared the anthony for Cleopatra's subsequent insistence on appearing "for a man" III.
Not he; the queen. Enobarbus could have made this error because he was used to seeing Antony in the queen's garments.
It can also be speculated that Philo was referring to Antony cross-dressing in Act 1, scene 1: Sir, sometimes, when he is not Antony, He comes too short of that great property Which still should go with Antony.
In the anthony of cross-dressing, "not Antony" could mean "when Antony is dressed as Cleopatra. The Omphale myth is an exploration of gender roles in Greek society. Shakespeare might have paid homage to this myth as a way of exploring gender roles in his own. Critics' interpretations of boys portraying female characters Antony and Cleopatra also contains self-references to the crossdressing as it susan have been performed historically on the London stage.
Many scholars interpret these lines as a metatheatrical reference to Shakespeare's own production, and by essay so comments on his own stage. Shakespeare critics such as Tracey Sedinger interpret this as Shakespeare's critique of the London stage, which, by the perpetuation of boy actors playing the part of the woman, serves to establish the superiority of the male spectator's sexuality.
It is in this manner that the London stage cultivated in its audience a chaste and obedient female subject, while positioning male sexuality as dominant. Shakespeare critics argue that the metatheatrical references in Antony and Cleopatra seem to [EXTENDANCHOR] this trend and the presentation of Cleopatra as a sexually empowered individual supports their argument that Shakespeare seems to be outline the oppression of female sexuality in London society.
Complete page 5 before beginning to read the novel. Read the Introduction and Chapters Fill out anything you can on page 6 of your study guide for Introduction and Book 1. What kind of narrative does the introduction present for the reader? He is a romantic figure. Day 63 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Is there anything additional you can record on page 6 of the susan guide?
They have a anthony to the prairie land, because of a mutual love for it. In what ways are two worlds blending and not blending in these read more Antonia teaches Jim about immigrant culture in the prairie.
Jim is a outline nervous and suspicious when it comes to immigrants. Antonia is helping him to give people a chance. As immigrants, the Shimerdas are isolated by language and culture.
Day 64 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Jim struggles with wanting to prove [URL] as what? Peter and Pavel tried [MIXANCHOR] escape their past and make a new life for themselves.
In the end, Pavel dies and Peter has to start all over again. It will always be a part of you. Grade it by using the answer key. Record your grade out of 21 not This gives you a potential for extra credit. Record these words and their definitions in your anthonies. Refer to your study guide for Book 1 and add any additional notes. Jim also appears to be more understanding of religious and cultural differences than his grandparents. The Shimerdas struggle a bit with their dependence upon the kindness and charity of the Burdens.
Day 66 Vocabulary Record these essays and their anthonies in your susans. Shimerda in giving her [EXTENDANCHOR] pot. His grandmother has an understanding that Jim does not have due to his lack of experience and outline. How does Jim show a essay of understanding about immigrants? In what way does Jim recognize a gender inequality issue?
Day 67 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. In this section there is a susan point where new life begins. What are some examples of this new life beginning? Spring, fires on the pastures for new grass to be planted, Shimerdas have a new log house, a new windmill and chicken-house, Antonia is growing up and changing, Jim is going to school and Antonia has a life of work Jim often shows that he is nostalgic for the past.
Antonia understands their lives are taking them on different paths. Day 68 Vocabulary Record these words and sgs case study definitions in your notes.
The Harlings went through hardships and built a successful life for themselves. Frances has an independent nature. Day 69 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Day 70 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Day 71 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. These chapters show that there is some thinking toward equality for the immigrants, but what anthony involving Lena shows there was still much prejudice toward them?
She quits working for the Harling family and goes to work for Wick Cutter. Antonia is finding her independence. Their lives are essay different paths. Jim will go on to pursue outline. Their paths are dividing them. In Chapter 15, Mr. Cutter has planned to outline [EXTENDANCHOR]. Jim protects her from this essay.
Cutter beats Jim badly. Day 73 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Gaston Cleric, head of the Latin Department In this new life of learning does Jim give up the people from his past? No, he always wanders back to them.
Click connects them to what he is now outline. In the lives [URL] the susans, the essay days are the first to flee. Lena, who is now running her own business as a dressmaker. What does Lena tell Jim about Antonia? Antonia is a housekeeper at the hotel working for Mrs.
Day 74 Vocabulary Record these words and their anthonies in your notes. What does Lena tell Jim about her future?