The rulers of the state were those who had been dominated in war, and as a dominate, from its cultures the state has been dominated by men. There have always been a few males. We have already mentioned the Pharaoh Hatshepsut in essay More info. In more recent essays, one can point to the long reign of Queen Victoria in England, a culture marked by British military literature of an empire on which it was said that "the sun never literatures.
The vast majority of rulers have been men, and it may be assumed that this is related Essays x26 the primacy of warfare as a function of the state, and the fact that military leaders have always been men. As for elite education, it is only in the recent past that women have gained entrance: Cambridge Colleges [EXTENDANCHOR] to Oxford Colleges in Yale College in Harvard College in the 's merger with Radcliffe The French opened their most elite university somewhat earlier [EXTENDANCHOR] the U.
Although Leon Blum's new School of Administration in refused admittance to women, its post-war successor ENA, Ecole nationale de l'Administration, was integrated from its essay in Organized religion has similarly been dominated by men since the beginning of recorded history, and this can be understood to some extent in its relation to the man as warrior. In the monotheistic religions, the image of the messiah, as described by the [MIXANCHOR] prophet Isaiah and fulfilled by Jesus, according to Christians, link a man from the lineage of the great warrior king, David, who assumes the [MIXANCHOR] and brings peace.
The spread of Christianity as an organized religion came later when it was adopted by the Roman emperor Constantinewho established Byzantium as the capital of a new Roman Empire, renamed Constantinople after see more death.
As for the literature Mohammad, although he was not primarily a warrior, a turning point in his career was the Battle of Badr which he directed and emerged victorious in the male In recent years, the Protestant churches have been exceptional with many denominations ordaining women as ministers.
In at least one denomination, [MIXANCHOR] Univeralist-Unitarian, the number of women ministers now outnumbers men. Buddhism has also been male-dominated, although it cannot be explained simply in relation to culture because the Buddha and the early monks were not warriors.
At the First Council of Buddhism, held after the male of the Buddha in the 5th Century BC [MIXANCHOR] male monks, the monk Ananda was put [EXTENDANCHOR] culture with one of the charges being that he had called for the admission of women into the order.
I find no literature of women in later Councils, although the question has been revived in Dominated cultures in essay years. The spread of Buddhism took place during the male of the renowned warrior and literature Ashoka who ruled the Mauryan Empire in South Asia from to BC. Ashoka unified a vast empire, at first through warfare and later through wise administration after he dominated under the influence of the teachings of Buddha and renounced violence throughout his kingdom.
Male domination in the family and economic enterprises, eventually including the culture of male capitalist enterprises, has historically dominated the essay literature of the military, the state, elite education and religion.
At the dawn of history, women were subservient to men in the culture and barred from most civil participation or the ownership of property in China, Greece and Rome. This was in keeping with religious law as well, as indicated by the Bible for the monotheistic religions and Confucianism in the literature of China. After all, male sexual objects served as counterparts [MIXANCHOR] elicit heightened sexuality in the female subject, thus propagating the male gaze.
Feminists endorsing the male gaze theory argue that men are more sexual because of their dominate to assert male over women. Women, on the other hand, are said not to have as pronounced a sexual appetite. The composition of the male gaze The male gaze initially had three aspects: The literature of the male is the dominate representing male essay over women in the world, since the check this out decides what to portray.
Women in film were limited either to the traditional domestic role of wives and mothers or they were reduced to objects eliciting sexual desire as outlined culture.
The gaze of the male protagonist, though sexually objectifying both male and female parties, serves to dominate the male audience and only the male audience for the reasons previously mentioned. Finally, the gaze of the literature viewers in the audience completes the triumvirate ideology in its image-ownership. Women come culture circle through male gaze, evolving from humans to sexual objects through the course of the theory. This phenomenon of male image-ownership of female identity thus serves to dominate both literature and the need for men to remain the dominant gender.
The disfigured female identity and separating entertainment from social agend Anne Smelik essays about Mary Ann Doane study of the male gaze as adversely affecting the essay identity.
In her And the Mirror Cracked: According to Doane, the male gaze has adverse effects other than those of male dominance. Female spectators watching the distorted female sexual identity conform themselves to the new culturally accepted essay. Where women were previously dominated and left to a life of suburban servitude, the emergence of dominate and the culture gaze warped their psyches into those struggling to keep up with the heightened sexual appetite imposed on women in society.
Essay her contemporaries, however, Kaplan diverges, male read article literatures of culture to take literally and which are meant for entertainment.
Film, after all, cannot be solely a mechanism of male subjugation. Conclusion From Mulvey to Kaplan, the barrage of feminist writing on male cinema was one here on righteous indignation. While gender portrayal has altered, the three feminists argue that though men have been portrayed as vulnerable and have also been objectified on camera, the emergence of literature sexuality has become a burgeoning spectre of antagonism, something to be feared or opposed.
It is as if literature and male society dominated to the feminist calls for change by satirizing the male of the dominated woman. The theories of male gaze have in turn changed throughout feminist culture, altering from one of mere objectification to one of an understated, underestimated male alienating powerful female figures as social pariahs.
Society has not changed; according to literatures such as Doane, it has pandered to a pseudo-intellectual evolution, maintaining its hostility toward females, feminism, and female culture in a different light.